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Testing Interview Questions Answers

Testing Interview Questions Answers

Question - 1 : - What is verification? validation?

Answer - 1 : - Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements, and specifications. This can be done with checklists, issues lists, walkthroughs, and inspection meetings. Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed. The term 'IV & V' refers to Independent Verification and Validation.

Question - 2 : - What makes a good QA or Test manager?

Answer - 2 : - A good QA, test, or QA/Test(combined) manager should: • be familiar with the software development process • be able to maintain enthusiasm of their team and promote a positive atmosphere, despite • what is a somewhat 'negative' process (e.g., looking for or preventing problems) • be able to promote teamwork to increase productivity • be able to promote cooperation between software, test, and QA engineers • have the diplomatic skills needed to promote improvements in QA processes • have the ability to withstand pressures and say 'no' to other managers when quality is insufficient or QA processes are not being adhered to • have people judgement skills for hiring and keeping skilled personnel • be able to communicate with technical and non-technical people, engineers, managers, and customers. • be able to run meetings and keep them focused

Question - 3 : - What's a 'test plan'?

Answer - 3 : - A software project test plan is a document that describes the objectives, scope, approach, and focus of a software testing effort. The process of preparing a test plan is a useful way to think through the efforts needed to validate the acceptability of a software product. The completed document will help people outside the test group understand the 'why' and 'how' of product validation. It should be thorough enough to be useful but not so thorough that no one outside the test group will read it. The following are some of the items that might be included in a test plan, depending on the particular project: • Title • Identification of software including version/release numbers • Revision history of document including authors, dates, approvals • Table of Contents • Purpose of document, intended audience • Objective of testing effort • Software product overview • Relevant related document list, such as requirements, design documents, other test plans, etc. • Relevant standards or legal requirements • Traceability requirements • Relevant naming conventions and identifier conventions • Overall software project organization and personnel/contact-info/responsibilties • Test organization and personnel/contact-info/responsibilities • Assumptions and dependencies • Project risk analysis • Testing priorities and focus • Scope and limitations of testing • Test outline - a decomposition of the test approach by test type, feature, functionality, process, system, module, etc. as applicable • Outline of data input equivalence classes, boundary value analysis, error classes • Test environment - hardware, operating systems, other required software, data configurations, interfaces to other systems • Test environment validity analysis - differences between the test and production systems and their impact on test validity. • Test environment setup and configuration issues • Software migration processes • Software CM processes • Test data setup requirements • Database setup requirements • Outline of system-logging/error-logging/other capabilities, and tools such as screen capture software, that will be used to help

Question - 4 : - What can be done if requirements are changing continuously?

Answer - 4 : - A common problem and a major headache. • Work with the project's stakeholders early on to understand how requirements might change so that alternate test plans and strategies can be worked out in advance, if possible. • It's helpful if the application's initial design allows for some adaptability so that later changes do not require redoing the application from scratch. • If the code is well-commented and well-documented this makes changes easier for the developers. • Use rapid prototyping whenever possible to help customers feel sure of their requirements and minimize changes. • The project's initial schedule should allow for some extra time commensurate with the possibility of changes. • Try to move new requirements to a 'Phase 2' version of an application, while using the original requirements for the 'Phase 1' version. • Negotiate to allow only easily-implemented new requirements into the project, while moving more difficult new requirements into future versions of the application. • Be sure that customers and management understand the scheduling impacts, inherent risks, and costs of significant requirements changes. Then let management or the customers (not the developers or testers) decide if the changes are warranted - after all, that's their job. • Balance the effort put into setting up automated testing with the expected effort required to re-do them to deal with changes. • Try to design some flexibility into automated test scripts. • Focus initial automated testing on application aspects that are most likely to remain unchanged. • Devote appropriate effort to risk analysis of changes to minimize regression testing needs. • Design some flexibility into test cases (this is not easily done; the best bet might be to minimize the detail in the test cases, or set up only higher-level generic-type test plans) • Focus less on detailed test plans and test cases and more on ad hoc testing (with an understanding of the added risk that this entails).

Question - 5 : - What's the role of documentation in QA?

Answer - 5 : - Critical. (Note that documentation can be electronic, not necessarily paper.) QA practices should be documented such that they are repeatable. Specifications, designs, business rules, inspection reports, configurations, code changes, test plans, test cases, bug reports, user manuals, etc. should all be documented. There should ideally be a system for easily finding and obtaining documents and determining what documentation will have a particular piece of information. Change management for documentation should be used if possible.

Question - 6 : - How can World Wide Web sites be tested?

Answer - 6 : - Web sites are essentially client/server applications - with web servers and 'browser' clients. Consideration should be given to the interactions between html pages, TCP/IP communications, Internet connections, firewalls, applications that run in web pages (such as applets, javascript, plug-in applications), and applications that run on the server side (such as cgi scripts, database interfaces, logging applications, dynamic page generators, asp, etc.). Additionally, there are a wide variety of servers and browsers, various versions of each, small but sometimes significant differences between them, variations in connection speeds, rapidly changing technologies, and multiple standards and protocols. The end result is that testing for web sites can become a major ongoing effort. Other considerations might include: • What are the expected loads on the server (e.g., number of hits per unit time?), and what kind of performance is required under such loads (such as web server response time, database query response times). What kinds of tools will be needed for performance testing (such as web load testing tools, other tools already in house that can be adapted, web robot downloading tools, etc.)? • Who is the target audience? What kind of browsers will they be using? What kind of connection speeds will they by using? Are they intra- organization (thus with likely high connection speeds and similar browsers) or Internet-wide (thus with a wide variety of connection speeds and browser types)? • What kind of performance is expected on the client side (e.g., how fast should pages appear, how fast should animations, applets, etc. load and run)? • Will down time for server and content maintenance/upgrades be allowed? how much? • What kinds of security (firewalls, encryptions, passwords, etc.) will be required and what is it expected to do? How can it be tested? • How reliable are the site's Internet connections required to be? And how does that affect backup system or redundant connection requirements and testing? • What processes will be required to manage updates to the web site's content, and what are the requirements for maintaining, tracking, and controlling page content, graphics, links, etc.? • Which HTML specification will be adhered to? How strictly? What variations will be allowed for targeted browsers? • Will there be any s

Question - 7 : - What's a 'test case'?

Answer - 7 : - • A test case is a document that describes an input, action, or event and an expected response, to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly. A test case should contain particulars such as test case identifier, test case name, objective, test conditions/setup, input data requirements, steps, and expected results. • Note that the process of developing test cases can help find problems in the requirements or design of an application, since it requires completely thinking through the operation of the application. For this reason, it's useful to prepare test cases early in the development cycle if possible.

Question - 8 : - What if the project isn't big enough to justify extensive testing?

Answer - 8 : - Consider the impact of project errors, not the size of the project. However, if extensive testing is still not justified, risk analysis is again needed and the same considerations as described previously in 'What if there isn't enough time for thorough testing?' apply. The tester might then do ad hoc testing, or write up a limited test plan based on the risk analysis.

Question - 9 : - How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization?

Answer - 9 : - • A lot depends on the size of the organization and the risks involved. For large organizations with high-risk (in terms of lives or property) projects, serious management buy-in is required and a formalized QA process is necessary. • Where the risk is lower, management and organizational buy-in and QA implementation may be a slower, step-at-a-time process. QA processes should be balanced with productivity so as to keep bureaucracy from getting out of hand. • For small groups or projects, a more ad-hoc process may be appropriate, depending on the type of customers and projects. A lot will depend on team leads or managers, feedback to developers, and ensuring adequate communications among customers, managers, developers, and testers. • The most value for effort will be in (a) requirements management processes, with a goal of clear, complete, testable requirement specifications embodied in requirements or design documentation and (b) design inspections and code inspections.

Question - 10 : - What is 'Software Testing'?

Answer - 10 : - Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results (eg, 'if the user is in interface A of the application while using hardware B, and does C, then D should happen'). The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions. Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen when they should. It is oriented to 'detection'. (See the Bookstore section's 'Software Testing' category for a list of useful books on Software Testing.) • Organizations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing. Sometimes they're the combined responsibility of one group or individual. Also common are project teams that include a mix of testers and developers who work closely together, with overall QA processes monitored by project managers. It will depend on what best fits an organization's size and business structure.


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