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Computer Interview Questions Answers

XHTML Interview Questions Answers

Question - 21 : - How W3Schools Was Converted To XHTML ?

Answer - 21 : - W3Schools was converted from HTML to XHTML. To convert a Web site from HTML to XHTML, you should be familiar with the XHTML syntax rules. Your pages must have a DOCTYPE declaration if you want them to validate as correct XHTML. The following DOCTYPE declaration was added as the first line of every page: <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> Be aware however, that newer browsers might treat your document differently depending on the <!DOCTYPE> declaration. If the browser reads a document with a DOCTYPE, it might treat the document as "correct". Malformed XHTML might fall over and display differently than without a DOCTYPE. Lower Case Tag And Attribute Names Since XHTML is case sensitive, and since XHTML only accepts lower case HTML tags and attribute names, a general search and replace function was executed to replace all upper case tags with lowercase tags. The same was done for attribute names. We have always tried to use lower case names in our Web, so the replace function did not produce many real substitutions. All Attributes Were Quoted Since the W3C XHTML 1.0 Recommendation states that all attribute values must be quoted, every page in the web was checked to see that attributes values were properly quoted. This was a time-consuming job, and we will surely never again forget to put quotes around our attribute values. Empty Tags: <hr> , <br> and <img> Empty tags are not allowed in XHTML. The <hr> and <br> tags should be replaced with <hr /> and <br />. This produced a problem with Netscape that misinterpreted the <br/> tag. We don't know why, but changing it to <br /> worked fine. After that discovery, a general search and replace function was executed to swap the tags. A few other tags (like the <img> tag) were suffering from the same problem as above. We decided not to close the <img> tags with </img>, but with /> at the end of the tag. This was done manually. The Web Site Was Validated After that, all pages were validated against the official W3C DTD with this link: XHTML Validator. A few more errors were found and edited manually. The most common error was missing &l

Question - 22 : - What's XHTML DTD?

Answer - 22 : - The XHTML standard defines three Document Type Definitions. The most common is the XHTML Transitional. The <!DOCTYPE> Is Mandatory An XHTML document consists of three main parts: * the DOCTYPE * the Head * the Body The basic document structure is: <!DOCTYPE ...> <html> <head> <title>... </title> </head> <body> ... </body> </html> The DOCTYPE declaration should always be the first line in an XHTML document. An XHTML Example This is a simple (minimal) XHTML document: <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd"> <html> <head> <title>simple document</title> </head> <body> <p>a simple paragraph</p> </body> </html> The DOCTYPE declaration defines the document type: <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd"> The rest of the document looks like HTML: <html> <head> <title>simple document</title> </head> <body> <p>a simple paragraph</p> </body> </html> The 3 Document Type Definitions * DTD specifies the syntax of a web page in SGML. * DTD is used by SGML applications, such as HTML, to specify rules that apply to the markup of documents of a particular type, including a set of element and entity declarations. * XHTML is specified in an SGML document type definition or 'DTD'. * An XHTML DTD describes in precise, computer-readable language, the allowed syntax and grammar of XHTML markup. There are currently 3 XHTML document types: * STRICT * TRANSITIONAL * FRAMESET XHTML 1.0 specifies three XML document types that correspond to three DTDs: Strict, Transitional, and Frameset.<

Question - 23 : - How does HTML differ from XHTML ?

Answer - 23 : - XHTML has a small number of differences. The most noticeable being the requirement for elements to be lowercase (e.g. <p> and not <P>) and elements to be closed (e.g. paragraphs must end with a </p>).

Question - 24 : - What the benefits of XHTML are?

Answer - 24 : - As XHTML is an XML application, you will benefit from developments in the XML world. For example XML tools such as editors, converters, browsers, etc. can be used with XHTML resources. In addition there are developments to the XML family of protocols and formats which will provide additional functionality for XHTML. Attributes values must be in double or single quotes <ol type=1> becomes <ol type="1"> or <ol type='1'> Every element must have an end tag, even when it doesn't really matter. <br> <input type="text" value="Amazon.com" size="20" > becomes <br /> <input type="text" value="Amazon.com" size="20" /> For compatibility with older browsers its best to put a single space before the '/'. Some browsers have trouble with "<br></br>" so its best to use "<br />" How to convert most HTML pages to XHTML. 1. Heading lines at top At the beginning of documents we need to include a few lines: <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en"> The location of the dtd allows validating parsers to check the document. Most browsers will ignore these tags. Every attribute must have a value <ol compact> <input type="radio" name="title" value="decline" checked>decline</input> becomes <ol compact="compact" > <input type="radio" name="title" value="decline" checked="checked">decline</input>

Question - 25 : - What about elements that don't have a close tag, such as <IMG> and <hr> ?

Answer - 25 : - There are two solutions. You could use a close tag (e.g. <img src="logo.gif" ...></img>). However the best solution is to simply include a forward slash in the element: <img src="logo.gif" ... /> Will this work? As long as you include a space before the slash it will cause no problems in most Web browsers - although there have been reports of problems with some embedded HTML viewers such as Java's Swing HTML editor.

Question - 26 : - How to build a "Hello World" page. With XHTML ?

Answer - 26 : - "Hello World" Web page code looks like this: <?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1"?> <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> <html xml:lang="en" lang="en" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <title>Hello World</title> </head> <body> <p>My first Web page.</p> </body> </html> </p>

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