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Networking Interview Questions Answers

Question 1 : Difference between bit rate and baud rate?

Answer 1 : Bit rate is the number of bits transmitted during one second whereas baud rate refers to the number of signal units per second that are required to represent those bits. baud rate = bit rate / N where N is no-of-bits represented by each signal shift.

Question 2 : Difference between the communication and transmission?

Answer 2 : Transmission is a physical movement of information and concern issues like bit polarity, synchronization, clock etc. Communication means the meaning full exchange of information between two communication media.

Question 3 : Explain 5-4-3 rule.?

Answer 3 : In a Ethernet network, between any two points on the network, there can be no more than five network segments or four repeaters, and of those five segments only three of segments can be populated.

Question 4 : Explain Circuit Level Gateway.

Answer 4 : A circuit level gateway is used to find if a session in TCP handshaking is legitimate or not. It can be considered as a layer between application layer and transport layer. They protect the information of the private network they protect. Circuit level gateways do not filter packets.

Question 5 : Explain how NAT works.

Answer 5 : Network Address Translation translates and IP address used in a network to another IP address known within another network. A NAT table is maintained for global to local and local to mapping of IP’s. NAT can be statically defined or dynamically translate from a pool of addresses. The NAT router is responsible for translating traffic coming and leaving the network. NAT prevents malicious activity initiated by outside hosts from reaching local hosts by being dependent on a machine on the local network to initiate any connection to hosts on the other side of the router.

Question 6 : Explain IP datagram, Fragmentation and MTU.

Answer 6 : IP datagram can be used to describe a portion of IP data. Each IP datagram has set of fields arranged in an order. The order is specific which helps to decode and read the stream easily. IP datagram has fields like Version, header length, Type of service, Total length, checksum, flag, protocol, Time to live, Identification, source and destination ip address, padding, options and payload. MTU:- Maximum Transmission Unit is the size of the largest packet that a communication protocol can pass. The size can be fixed by some standard or decided at the time of connection Fragmentation is a process of breaking the IP packets into smaller pieces. Fragmentation is needed when the datagram is larger than the MTU. Each fragment becomes a datagram in itself and transmitted independently from source. When received by destination they are reassembled.

Question 7 : Explain RSVP. How does it work?

Answer 7 : Resource Reservation protocol is used to reserve resources across a network. It is used for requesting a specific Quality of Service (QoS) from the network. This is done by carrying the request (that needs a reservation of the resource) of the host throughout the network. It visits each node in the network. RSVP used two local modules for reservation of resources. Admission control module confirms if there are sufficient available resources while policy module checks for the permission of making a reservation. RSVP offers scalability. On a successful completion of both checks RSVP uses the packet classifier and packet scheduler for the desired Qos requested.

Question 8 : Explain the building blocks of Client/Server?

Answer 8 : The client side building block runs the client side of the application. The server side building block runs the server side of the application. The middleware buliding block runs on both the client and server sides of an application. It is broken into three categories:- Transport stack Network OS Service-specific middleware.

Question 9 : Explain the concept of DHCP.

Answer 9 : Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is used assigning IP addresses to computers in a network. The IP addresses are assigned dynamically. Certainly, using DHCP, the computer will have a different IP address every time it is connected to the network. In some cases the IP address may change even when the computer is in network. This means that DHCP leases out the IP address to the computer for sometime. Clear advantage of DHCP is that the software can be used to manage IP address rather than the administrator.

Question 10 : Explain the function of Transmission Control Block?

Answer 10 : A TCB is a complex data structure that contains a considerable amount of information about each connection.

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