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Computer Interview Questions Answers

Manual Testing Interview Questions Answers

Question - 31 : - What can be done if requirements are changing continuously?

Answer - 31 : - A common problem and a major headache. • Work with the project's stakeholders early on to understand how requirements might change so that alternate test plans and strategies can be worked out in advance, if possible. • It's helpful if the application's initial design allows for some adaptability so that later changes do not require redoing the application from scratch. • If the code is well-commented and well-documented this makes changes easier for the developers. • Use rapid prototyping whenever possible to help customers feel sure of their requirements and minimize changes. • The project's initial schedule should allow for some extra time commensurate with the possibility of changes. • Try to move new requirements to a 'Phase 2' version of an application, while using the original requirements for the 'Phase 1' version. • Negotiate to allow only easily-implemented new requirements into the project, while moving more difficult new requirements into future versions of the application. • Be sure that customers and management understand the scheduling impacts, inherent risks, and costs of significant requirements changes. Then let management or the customers (not the developers or testers) decide if the changes are warranted - after all, that's their job. • Balance the effort put into setting up automated testing with the expected effort required to re-do them to deal with changes. • Try to design some flexibility into automated test scripts. • Focus initial automated testing on application aspects that are most likely to remain unchanged. • Devote appropriate effort to risk analysis of changes to minimize regression testing needs. • Design some flexibility into test cases (this is not easily done; the best bet might be to minimize the detail in the test cases, or set up only higher-level generic-type test plans) • Focus less on detailed test plans and test cases and more on ad hoc testing (with an understanding of the added risk that this entails).

Question - 32 : - What makes a good Software QA engineer?

Answer - 32 : - The same qualities a good tester has are useful for a QA engineer. Additionally, they must be able to understand the entire software development process and how it can fit into the business approach and goals of the organization. Communication skills and the ability to understand various sides of issues are important. In organizations in the early stages of implementing QA processes, patience and diplomacy are especially needed. An ability to find problems as well as to see 'what's missing' is important for inspections and reviews.

Question - 33 : - What kinds of testing should be considered?

Answer - 33 : - • Black box testing - not based on any knowledge of internal design or code. Tests are based on requirements and functionality. • White box testing - based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application's code. Tests are based on coverage of code statements, branches, paths, conditions. • unit testing - the most 'micro' scale of testing; to test particular functions or code modules. Typically done by the programmer and not by testers, as it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code. Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code; may require developing test driver modules or test harnesses. • incremental integration testing - continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added; requires that various aspects of an application's functionality be independent enough to work separately before all parts of the program are completed, or that test drivers be developed as needed; done by programmers or by testers. • integration testing - testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. The 'parts' can be code modules, individual applications, client and server applications on a network, etc. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems. • functional testing - black-box type testing geared to functional requirements of an application; this type of testing should be done by testers. This doesn't mean that the programmers shouldn't check that their code works before releasing it (which of course applies to any stage of testing.) • system testing - black-box type testing that is based on overall requirements specifications; covers all combined parts of a system. • end-to-end testing - similar to system testing; the 'macro' end of the test scale; involves testing of a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use, such as interacting with a database, using network communications, or interacting with other hardware, applications, or systems if appropriate. • sanity testing or smoke testing - typically an initial testing effort to determine if a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort. For example, if the new software is crashing systems every 5 minutes, bogging down systems to a crawl, or corru

Question - 34 : - What if an organization is growing so fast that fixed QA processes are impossible?

Answer - 34 : - This is a common problem in the software industry, especially in new technology areas. There is no easy solution in this situation, other than: • Hire good people • Management should 'ruthlessly prioritize' quality issues and maintain focus on the customer • Everyone in the organization should be clear on what 'quality' means to the customer

Question - 35 : - What is 'Software Testing'?

Answer - 35 : - Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results (eg, 'if the user is in interface A of the application while using hardware B, and does C, then D should happen'). The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions. Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen when they should. It is oriented to 'detection'. (See the Bookstore section's 'Software Testing' category for a list of useful books on Software Testing.) • Organizations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing. Sometimes they're the combined responsibility of one group or individual. Also common are project teams that include a mix of testers and developers who work closely together, with overall QA processes monitored by project managers. It will depend on what best fits an organization's size and business structure.

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