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Computer Interview Questions Answers

Manual Testing Interview Questions Answers

Question - 21 : - How does a client/server environment affect testing?

Answer - 21 : - Client/server applications can be quite complex due to the multiple dependencies among clients, data communications, hardware, and servers. Thus testing requirements can be extensive. When time is limited (as it usually is) the focus should be on integration and system testing. Additionally, load/stress/performance testing may be useful in determining client/server application limitations and capabilities. There are commercial tools to assist with such testing. (See the 'Tools' section for web resources with listings that include these kinds of test tools.)

Question - 22 : - What's a 'test plan'?

Answer - 22 : - A software project test plan is a document that describes the objectives, scope, approach, and focus of a software testing effort. The process of preparing a test plan is a useful way to think through the efforts needed to validate the acceptability of a software product. The completed document will help people outside the test group understand the 'why' and 'how' of product validation. It should be thorough enough to be useful but not so thorough that no one outside the test group will read it. The following are some of the items that might be included in a test plan, depending on the particular project: • Title • Identification of software including version/release numbers • Revision history of document including authors, dates, approvals • Table of Contents • Purpose of document, intended audience • Objective of testing effort • Software product overview • Relevant related document list, such as requirements, design documents, other test plans, etc. • Relevant standards or legal requirements • Traceability requirements • Relevant naming conventions and identifier conventions • Overall software project organization and personnel/contact-info/responsibilties • Test organization and personnel/contact-info/responsibilities • Assumptions and dependencies • Project risk analysis • Testing priorities and focus • Scope and limitations of testing • Test outline - a decomposition of the test approach by test type, feature, functionality, process, system, module, etc. as applicable • Outline of data input equivalence classes, boundary value analysis, error classes • Test environment - hardware, operating systems, other required software, data configurations, interfaces to other systems • Test environment validity analysis - differences between the test and production systems and their impact on test validity. • Test environment setup and configuration issues • Software migration processes • Software CM processes • Test data setup requirements • Database setup requirements • Outline of system-logging/error-logging/other capabilities, and tools such as screen capture software, that will be used to help

Question - 23 : - What if the software is so buggy it can't really be tested at all?

Answer - 23 : - The best bet in this situation is for the testers to go through the process of reporting whatever bugs or blocking-type problems initially show up, with the focus being on critical bugs. Since this type of problem can severely affect schedules, and indicates deeper problems in the software development process (such as insufficient unit testing or insufficient integration testing, poor design, improper build or release procedures, etc.) managers should be notified, and provided with some documentation as evidence of the problem.

Question - 24 : - What's the role of documentation in QA?

Answer - 24 : - Critical. (Note that documentation can be electronic, not necessarily paper.) QA practices should be documented such that they are repeatable. Specifications, designs, business rules, inspection reports, configurations, code changes, test plans, test cases, bug reports, user manuals, etc. should all be documented. There should ideally be a system for easily finding and obtaining documents and determining what documentation will have a particular piece of information. Change management for documentation should be used if possible.

Question - 25 : - What is a 'walkthrough'?

Answer - 25 : - A 'walkthrough' is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes. Little or no preparation is usually required.

Question - 26 : - How can Software QA processes be implemented without stifling productivity?

Answer - 26 : - By implementing QA processes slowly over time, using consensus to reach agreement on processes, and adjusting and experimenting as an organization grows and matures, productivity will be improved instead of stifled. Problem prevention will lessen the need for problem detection, panics and burn-out will decrease, and there will be improved focus and less wasted effort. At the same time, attempts should be made to keep processes simple and efficient, minimize paperwork, promote computer-based processes and automated tracking and reporting, minimize time required in meetings, and promote training as part of the QA process. However, no one - especially talented technical types - likes rules or bureacracy, and in the short run things may slow down a bit. A typical scenario would be that more days of planning and development will be needed, but less time will be required for late-night bug-fixing and calming of irate customers.

Question - 27 : - What should be done after a bug is found?

Answer - 27 : - The bug needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it. After the problem is resolved, fixes should be re-tested, and determinations made regarding requirements for regression testing to check that fixes didn't create problems elsewhere. If a problem-tracking system is in place, it should encapsulate these processes. A variety of commercial problem-tracking/management software tools are available (see the 'Tools' section for web resources with listings of such tools). The following are items to consider in the tracking process: • Complete information such that developers can understand the bug, get an idea of it's severity, and reproduce it if necessary. • Bug identifier (number, ID, etc.) • Current bug status (e.g., 'Released for Retest', 'New', etc.) • The application name or identifier and version • The function, module, feature, object, screen, etc. where the bug occurred • Environment specifics, system, platform, relevant hardware specifics • Test case name/number/identifier • One-line bug description • Full bug description • Description of steps needed to reproduce the bug if not covered by a test case or if the developer doesn't have easy access to the test case/test script/test tool • Names and/or descriptions of file/data/messages/etc. used in test • File excerpts/error messages/log file excerpts/screen shots/test tool logs that would be helpful in finding the cause of the problem • Severity estimate (a 5-level range such as 1-5 or 'critical'-to-'low' is common) • Was the bug reproducible? • Tester name • Test date • Bug reporting date • Name of developer/group/organization the problem is assigned to • Description of problem cause • Description of fix • Code section/file/module/class/method that was fixed • Date of fix • Application version that contains the fix • Tester responsible for retest • Retest date • Retest results • Regression testing requirements • Tester responsible for regression tests • Regression testing results A reporting or tracking process should enable notification of appropriate personnel at various stages. Fo

Question - 28 : - How can World Wide Web sites be tested?

Answer - 28 : - Web sites are essentially client/server applications - with web servers and 'browser' clients. Consideration should be given to the interactions between html pages, TCP/IP communications, Internet connections, firewalls, applications that run in web pages (such as applets, javascript, plug-in applications), and applications that run on the server side (such as cgi scripts, database interfaces, logging applications, dynamic page generators, asp, etc.). Additionally, there are a wide variety of servers and browsers, various versions of each, small but sometimes significant differences between them, variations in connection speeds, rapidly changing technologies, and multiple standards and protocols. The end result is that testing for web sites can become a major ongoing effort. Other considerations might include: • What are the expected loads on the server (e.g., number of hits per unit time?), and what kind of performance is required under such loads (such as web server response time, database query response times). What kinds of tools will be needed for performance testing (such as web load testing tools, other tools already in house that can be adapted, web robot downloading tools, etc.)? • Who is the target audience? What kind of browsers will they be using? What kind of connection speeds will they by using? Are they intra- organization (thus with likely high connection speeds and similar browsers) or Internet-wide (thus with a wide variety of connection speeds and browser types)? • What kind of performance is expected on the client side (e.g., how fast should pages appear, how fast should animations, applets, etc. load and run)? • Will down time for server and content maintenance/upgrades be allowed? how much? • What kinds of security (firewalls, encryptions, passwords, etc.) will be required and what is it expected to do? How can it be tested? • How reliable are the site's Internet connections required to be? And how does that affect backup system or redundant connection requirements and testing? • What processes will be required to manage updates to the web site's content, and what are the requirements for maintaining, tracking, and controlling page content, graphics, links, etc.? • Which HTML specification will be adhered to? How strictly? What variations will be allowed for targeted browsers? • Will there be any s

Question - 29 : - What is 'configuration management'?

Answer - 29 : - Configuration management covers the processes used to control, coordinate, and track: code, requirements, documentation, problems, change requests, designs, tools/compilers/libraries/patches, changes made to them, and who makes the changes. (See the 'Tools' section for web resources with listings of configuration management tools. Also see the Bookstore section's 'Configuration Management' category for useful books with more information.)

Question - 30 : - Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance?

Answer - 30 : - Solving problems is a high-visibility process; preventing problems is low-visibility. This is illustrated by an old parable: In ancient China there was a family of healers, one of whom was known throughout the land and employed as a physician to a great lord. The physician was asked which of his family was the most skillful healer. He replied, "I tend to the sick and dying with drastic and dramatic treatments, and on occasion someone is cured and my name gets out among the lords." "My elder brother cures sickness when it just begins to take root, and his skills are known among the local peasants and neighbors." "My eldest brother is able to sense the spirit of sickness and eradicate it before it takes form. His name is unknown outside our home."

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