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Computer Interview Questions Answers

MS SQL Interview Questions Answers

Question - 51 : - How do I find the day of the week?

Answer - 51 : - Using the weekday argument as its first parameter, SQL Server's DATEPART() function returns the day of the week, returning 1 for Sunday, 2 for Monday, and so on. The following example uses the GETDATE() function combined with the DATEPART() function to retrieve the current day value: SELECT DATEPART(weekday, GETDATE())

Question - 52 : - How do you add three minutes to a date?

Answer - 52 : - ADDDATE(techpreparation_publication_date, INTERVAL 3 MINUTE)

Question - 53 : - Causes of Access denied Errors?

Answer - 53 : - If you encounter Access denied errors when you try to connect to the MySQL server, the list below indicates some courses of action you can take to correct the problem: The server should let you connect without error. You should also make sure you have a file `user.MYD' in the MySQL database directory. Ordinarily, this is `PATH/var/mysql/user.MYD', where PATH is the pathname to the MySQL installation root. After a fresh installation, you should connect to the server and set up your users and their access permissions: shell> mysql -u root mysql The server should let you connect because the MySQL root user has no password initially. That is also a security risk, so setting the root password is something you should do while you're setting up your other MySQL users. If you try to connect as root and get this error: Access denied for user: '@unknown' to database mysql this means that you don't have an entry in the user table with a User column value of 'root' and that mysqld cannot resolve the hostname for your client. In this case, you must restart the server with the --skip-grant-tables option and edit your `/etc/hosts' or `\windows\hosts' file to add an entry for your host. If you updated an existing MySQL installation from a version earlier than Version 3.22.11 to Version 3.22.11 or later, did you run the mysql_fix_privilege_tables script? If not, do so. The structure of the grant tables changed with MySQL Version 3.22.11 when the GRANT statement became functional. If you can't get your password to work, remember that you must use the PASSWORD() function if you set the password with the INSERT, UPDATE, or SET PASSWORD statements. The PASSWORD() function is unnecessary if you specify the password using the GRANT ... INDENTIFIED BY statement or the mysqladmin password command. localhost is a synonym for your local hostname, and is also the default host to which clients try to connect if you specify no host explicitly. However, connections to localhost do not work if you are running on a system that uses MIT-pthreads (localhost connections are made using Unix sockets, which are not supported by MIT-pthreads). To avoid this problem on such systems, you should use the --host option to name the server host explicitly. This will make a TCP/IP connection to the mysqld serve

Question - 54 : - How do I upgrade on a hot replication setup?

Answer - 54 : - If you are upgrading pre-3.23.26 versions, you should just lock the master tables, let the slave catch up, then run FLUSH MASTER on the master, and FLUSH SLAVE on the slave to reset the logs, then restart new versions of the master and the slave. Note that the slave can stay down for some time - since the master is logging all the updates, the slave will be able to catch up once it is up and can connect. After 3.23.26, we have locked the replication protocol for modifications, so you can upgrade masters and slave on the fly to a newer 3.23 version and you can have different versions of MySQL running on the slave and the master, as long as they are both newer than 3.23.26.

Question - 55 : - Error severity 13 indicates what?

Answer - 55 : - Transactional deadlock errors. This level of error severity indicates a transaction deadlock error.

Question - 56 : - How to Cope Without COMMIT/ROLLBACK

Answer - 56 : - The following mostly applies only for ISAM, MyISAM, and HEAP tables. If you only use transaction-safe tables (BDB tables) in an a update, you can do COMMIT and ROLLBACK also with MySQL. The problem with handling COMMIT-ROLLBACK efficiently with the above table types would require a completely different table layout than MySQL uses today. The table type would also need extra threads that do automatic cleanups on the tables, and the disk usage would be much higher. This would make these table types about 2-4 times slower than they are today. For the moment, we prefer implementing the SQL server language (something like stored procedures). With this you would very seldom really need COMMIT-ROLLBACK. This would also give much better performance. Loops that need transactions normally can be coded with the help of LOCK TABLES, and you don't need cursors when you can update records on the fly. We at TcX had a greater need for a real fast database than a 100% general database. Whenever we find a way to implement these features without any speed loss, we will probably do it. For the moment, there are many more important things to do. Check the TODO for how we prioritize things at the moment. (Customers with higher levels of support can alter this, so things may be reprioritized.) The current problem is actually ROLLBACK. Without ROLLBACK, you can do any kind of COMMIT action with LOCK TABLES. To support ROLLBACK with the above table types, MySQL would have to be changed to store all old records that were updated and revert everything back to the starting point if ROLLBACK was issued. For simple cases, this isn't that hard to do (the current isamlog could be used for this purpose), but it would be much more difficult to implement ROLLBACK for ALTER/DROP/CREATE TABLE. To avoid using ROLLBACK, you can use the following strategy: Use LOCK TABLES ... to lock all the tables you want to access. Test conditions. Update if everything is okay. Use UNLOCK TABLES to release your locks. This is usually a much faster method than using transactions with possible ROLLBACKs, although not always. The only situation this solution doesn't handle is when someone kills the threads in the middle of an update. In this case, all locks will be released but some of the updates may not have been executed. You can also use functions to update records in a

Question - 57 : - What can be used to ensure that a field in a table only accepts a certain range of values?

Answer - 57 : - This question can be answered a couple of different ways, but only one answer is a "good" one. The answer you want to hear is a Check constraint, which is defined on a database table that limits the values entered into that column. These constraints are relatively easy to create, and they are the recommended type for enforcing domain integrity in SQL Server. Triggers can also be used to restrict the values accepted in a field in a database table, but this solution requires the trigger to be defined on the table, which can hinder performance in certain situations. For this reason, Microsoft recommends Check constraints over all other methods for restricting domain integrity.

Question - 58 : - When you create a new Message Type in the SQL Server 2005 Service Broker, what does the Authorization parameter signify?

Answer - 58 : - The owner of the message type. This parameter determines the owner of the message type. This defaults to the current user.

Question - 59 : - Estimating Query Performance ?

Answer - 59 : - In most cases you can estimate the performance by counting disk seeks. For small tables, you can usually find the row in 1 disk seek (as the index is probably cached). For bigger tables, you can estimate that (using B++ tree indexes) you will need: log(row_count) / log(index_block_length / 3 * 2 / (index_length + data_pointer_length)) + 1 seeks to find a row. In MySQL an index block is usually 1024 bytes and the data pointer is usually 4 bytes. A 500,000 row table with an index length of 3 (medium integer) gives you: log(500,000)/log(1024/3*2/(3+4)) + 1 = 4 seeks. As the above index would require about 500,000 * 7 * 3/2 = 5.2M, (assuming that the index buffers are filled to 2/3, which is typical) you will probably have much of the index in memory and you will probably only need 1-2 calls to read data from the OS to find the row. For writes, however, you will need 4 seek requests (as above) to find where to place the new index and normally 2 seeks to update the index and write the row. Note that the above doesn't mean that your application will slowly degenerate by N log N! As long as everything is cached by the OS or SQL server things will only go marginally slower while the table gets bigger. After the data gets too big to be cached, things will start to go much slower until your applications is only bound by disk-seeks (which increase by N log N). To avoid this, increase the index cache as the data grows.

Question - 60 : - What are the different table present in MYsql?

Answer - 60 : - MyISAM: This is default. Based on Indexed Sequntial Access Method. The above SQL will create a MyISA table. ISAM : same HEAP : Fast data access, but will loose data if there is a crash. Cannot have BLOB, TEXT & AUTO INCRIMENT fields BDB : Supports Transactions using COMMIT & ROLLBACK. Slower that others. InoDB : same as BDB

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