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Computer Interview Questions Answers

HTML Interview Questions Answers

Question - 21 : - Are there any problems with using tables for layout?

Answer - 21 : - On current browsers, the entire table must be downloaded and the dimensions of everything in the table must to be known before the table can be rendered. That can delay the rendering of your content, especially if your table contains images without HEIGHT or WIDTH attributes. If any of your table's content is too wide for the available display area, then the table stretches to accomodate the oversized content. The rest of the content then adjusts to fit the oversized table rather than fitting the available display area. This can force your readers to scroll horizontally to read your content, or can cause printed versions to be cropped. For readers whose displays are narrower than the author anticipated, fixed-width tables cause the same problems as other oversized tables. For readers whose displays are wider than the author anticipated, fixed-width tables cause extremely wide margins, wasting much of the display area. For readers who need larger fonts, fixed-width tables can cause the content to be displayed in short choppy lines of only a few words each. Many browsers are especially sensitive to invalid syntax when tables are involved. Correct syntax is especially critical. Even with correct syntax, nested tables may not display correctly in older versions of Netscape Navigator. Some browsers ignore tables, or can be configured to ignore tables. These browsers will ignore any layout you've created with tables. Also, search engines ignore tables. Some search engines use the text at the beginning of a document to summarize it when it appears in search results, and some index only the first n bytes of a document. When tables are used for layout, the beginning of a document often contains many navigation links that appear before than actual content. Many versions of Navigator have problems linking to named anchors when they are inside a table that uses the ALIGN attribute. These browsers seem to associate the named anchor with the top of the table, rather than with the content of the anchor. You can avoid this problem by not using the ALIGN attribute on your tables. If you use tables for layout, you can still minimize the related problems with careful markup. Avoid placing wide images, PRE elements with long lines, long URLs, or other wide content inside tables. Rather than a single full-page layout table, use several independent tables. For example, you could use a table to lay out a navigati

Question - 22 : - How do I create frames? What is a frameset?

Answer - 22 : - Frames allow an author to divide a browser window into multiple (rectangular) regions. Multiple documents can be displayed in a single window, each within its own frame. Graphical browsers allow these frames to be scrolled independently of each other, and links can update the document displayed in one frame without affecting the others. You can't just "add frames" to an existing document. Rather, you must create a frameset document that defines a particular combination of frames, and then display your content documents inside those frames. The frameset document should also include alternative non-framed content in a NOFRAMES element. The HTML 4 frames model has significant design flaws that cause usability problems for web users. Frames should be used only with great care.

Question - 23 : - How do I specify page breaks in HTML?

Answer - 23 : - There is no way in standard HTML to specify where page breaks will occur when printing a page. HTML was designed to be a device-independent structural definition language, and page breaks depend on things like the fonts and paper size that the person viewing the page is using.

Question - 24 : - How do I get out of a frameset?

Answer - 24 : - If you are the author, this is easy. You only have to add the TARGET attribute to the link that takes readers to the intended 'outside' document. Give it the value of _top. In many current browsers, it is not possible to display a frame in the full browser window, at least not very easily. The reader would need to copy the URL of the desired frame and then request that URL manually. I would recommend that authors who want to offer readers this option add a link to the document itself in the document, with the TARGET attribute set to _top so the document displays in the full window if the link is followed.

Question - 25 : - Can I nest tables within tables?

Answer - 25 : - Yes, a table can be embedded inside a cell in another table. Here's a simple example: <table> <tr> <td>this is the first cell of the outer table</td> <td>this is the second cell of the outer table, with the inner table embedded in it <table> <tr> <td>this is the first cell of the inner table</td> <td>this is the second cell of the inner table</td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> The main caveat about nested tables is that older versions of Netscape Navigator have problems with them if you don't explicitly close your TR, TD, and TH elements. To avoid problems, include every </tr>, </td>, and </th> tag, even though the HTML specifications don't require them. Also, older versions of Netscape Navigator have problems with tables that are nested extremely deeply (e.g., tables nested ten deep). To avoid problems, avoid nesting tables more than a few deep. You may be able to use the ROWSPAN and COLSPAN attributes to minimize table nesting. Finally, be especially sure to validate your markup whenever you use nested tables.  

Question - 26 : - Do search engines dislike frames?

Answer - 26 : - Search engines can link directly to framed content documents, but they cannot link to the combinations of frames for which those content documents were designed. This is the result of a fundamental flaw in the design of frames. Search engines try to provide their users with links to useful documents. Many framed content documents are difficult to use when accessed directly (outside their intended frameset), so there is little benefit if search engines offer links to them. Therefore, many search engines ignore frames completely and go about indexing more useful (non-framed) documents. Search engines will index your <NOFRAMES> content, and any content that is accessible via your  

Question - 27 : - How can I specify colors?

Answer - 27 : - If you want others to view your web page with specific colors, the most appropriate way is to suggest the colors with a style sheet. Cascading Style Sheets use the color and background-color properties to specify text and background colors. To avoid conflicts between the reader's default colors and those suggested by the author, these two properties should always be used together. With HTML, you can suggest colors with the TEXT, LINK, VLINK (visited link), ALINK (active link), and BGCOLOR (background color) attributes of the BODY element. Note that these attributes are deprecated by HTML 4. Also, if one of these attributes is used, then all of them should be used to ensure that the reader's default colors do not interfere with those suggested by the author. Here is an example: <body bgcolor="#ffffff" text="#000000" link="#0000ff" vlink="#800080" alink="#000080"> Authors should not rely on the specified colors since browsers allow their users to override document-specified colors.

Question - 28 : - Can I have two or more actions in the same form?

Answer - 28 : - No. A form must have exactly one action. However, the server-side (e.g., CGI) program that processes your form submissions can perform any number of tasks (e.g., updating a database, sending email, logging a transaction) in response to a single form submission.

Question - 29 : - Can I prevent a form from being submitted again?

Answer - 29 : - No. The server-side (e.g., CGI) program that processes the form submission must handle duplicate submissions gracefully. You could generate the form with a server-side (e.g., CGI) program that adds a hidden field with a unique session ID. Then the server-side program that processes the form submission can check the session ID against a list of previously used session IDs. If the session ID has already been used, then an appropriate action can be taken (e.g., reject the submission, or update the previously submitted data). Ultimately, your server-side program must be smart enough to handle resubmitted data. But you can avoid getting resubmitted data by not expiring the confirmation page from form submissions. Since you want to expire pages quickly when they have transient data, you might want to avoid putting transient data on the confirmation page. You could provide a link to a database query that returns transient data though.

Question - 30 : - Why do my links open new windows rather than update an existing frame?

Answer - 30 : - If there is no existing frame with the name you used for the TARGET attribute, then a new browser window will be opened, and this window will be assigned the name you used. Furthermore, TARGET="_blank" will open a new, unnamed browser window. In HTML 4, the TARGET attribute value is case-insensitive, so that abc and ABC both refer to the same frame/window, and _top and _TOP both have the same meaning. However, most browsers treat the TARGET attribute value as case-sensitive and do not recognize ABC as being the same as abc, or _TOP as having the special meaning of _top. Also, some browsers include a security feature that prevents documents from being hijacked by third-party framesets. In these browsers, if a document's link targets a frame defined by a frameset document that is located on a different server than the document itself, then the link opens in a new window instead.

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