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Computer Interview Questions Answers

CSS Interview Questions Answers

Question - 21 : - What is cascading order?

Answer - 21 : - Cascading order is a sorting system consisting of rules by which declarations are sorted out so that there are not conflicts as to which declaration is to influence the presentation. The sorting begins with rule no 1. If a match is found the search is over. If there is no match under rule no 1 the search continues under rule no 2 and so on. 1. Find all declarations that apply to a specific selector/property and Declare the specified style if the selector matches the element if there isn't any Let the element inherit its parent property if there isn't any Use initial value 2. Sort by weight (! important) Increased weight take precedence over normal weight 3. Sort by origin Rules with normal weight declared in author's style sheet will override rules with normal weight declared in user's personal style sheets Rules with increased weight declared in user's personal style sheet will override rules with normal weight declared in author's style sheet Rules with increased weight declared in author's style sheet will override rules with increased weight declared in user's personal style sheets Author's and user's rules will override UA's default style sheet. 4. Sort by selector's specificity More specific selector will override less specific one: ID-selector (most specific), followed by Classified contextual selectors (TABLE P EM.fot) Class selectors (EM.fot) Contextual selectors - the "lower down" the more weight, (TABLE P EM), (TABLE P EM STRONG) - STRONG has more weight than EM. 5. Sort by order specified If two rules have the same weight, the latter specified overrides ones specified earlier. Style sheets are sorted out as follows: The STYLE attribute (inline style) overrides all other styles The Style element (embedded style) overrides linked and imported sheets The LINK element (external style) overrides imported style The @import statement - imported style sheets also cascade with each other in the same order as they are imported

Question - 22 : - what CSS is, why not start coding?

Answer - 22 : - CSS is sort of like scripting language made for the web. In contrary with HTML, DHTML, JavaScript, VBScript and many others. CSS is strictly for formatting your web-page and now many new browser support it. (NOTE: Older browser do not support CSS, so please check your browser version and make sure whether it supports it or not. You may have to update your current Browser.) The way the code goes into your Web-page is through a variety of ways. The way CSS works is that is the code is set between the<head></head> tags. You can put the CSS code after </title> which is what most people do. Now, here are the following ways of making your webpage with CSS enabled features: 1.) Writing your CSS code within your HTML source code. This is how it would look like: <html><head><title>My First CSS!</title> <!-- Now begin the CSS coding! --> <STYLE TYPE = "text/css"> <!-- body { background-color: #eeeee; } p { text-align: left; color: black; font: Verdana; font-size: 80%; } a { text-decoration: none; color: black; font-weight: bold; } a:hover { text-decoration: underline; color: red; font-weight: bold; } --> </STYLE> <!-- End CSS code --> </head><body></body></html> 2.) Linking to your CSS file. This tells the webpage to find the .css file and use it as the CSS code. Here is the code that would allow you to do: <html><head><title>CSS</title> <link href="style.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" /> </head><body /></html> As you can see from the code above, the <link> tag is pretty helpful. What it does is that it links to the style.css file which has all the css code. Just like embedding an image throught he <img> tag. Now to explain a bit from the first example. CSS code isn't very hard to understand.Take for example the body { ..} part. What it does is that it formats how the <body> tag in HTML would work. That is a very

Question - 23 : - What is the difference between ID and CLASS?

Answer - 23 : - ID identifies and sets style to one and only one occurrence of an element while class can be attached to any number of elements. By singling out one occurrence of an element the unique value can be declared to said element.

Question - 24 : - What are the advantages/disadvantages of the various style methods?

Answer - 24 : - Advantages * Can control styles for multiple documents at once * Classes can be created for use on multiple HTML element types in many documents * Selector and grouping methods can be used to apply styles under complex contexts Disadvantages * An extra download is required to import style information for each document * The rendering of the document may be delayed until the external style sheet is loaded * Becomes slightly unwieldy for small quantities of style definitions Embedded Style Sheets Advantages * Classes can be created for use on multiple tag types in the document * Selector and grouping methods can be used to apply styles under complex contexts * No additional downloads necessary to receive style information Disadvantages * This method can not control styles for multiple documents at once Inline Styles Advantages * Useful for small quantities of style definitions * Can override other style specification methods at the local level so only exceptions need to be listed in conjunction with other style methods Disadvantages * Does not distance style information from content (a main goal of SGML/HTML) * Can not control styles for multiple documents at once * Author can not create or control classes of elements to control multiple element types within the document * Selector grouping methods can not be used to create complex element addressing scenarios

Question - 25 : - What's the difference between 'class' and 'id'?

Answer - 25 : - As a person, you may have an ID card - a passport, a driving license or whatever - which identifies you as a unique individual. It's the same with CSS. If you want to apply style to one element use 'id' (e.g. <div id="myid">). In the stylesheet, you identify an 'id' with a '#' ie. '#myid'... As a person, if you are in a class, you are one of many. It's the same with CSS. If you want to apply the same style to more than one element, use 'class' (e.g. <div class="myclass">). In the stylesheet, you identify a 'class' with a '.' ie. '.myclass'... If id's are more restrictive than classes, then why not just litter your page with classes? Well, I think the main thing is that it's simply wrong. You don't put headings in 'p' tags - you use 'h1', 'h2', etc. You don't (or shouldn't) make a list by writing asterisks or the little divider bar ( | ) - you use list tags ('ol'/'ul' + 'li') . You don't say that your footer is part of a class of elements called 'footer' - that's just stupid - you can't have more than one footer - it can't be a class. Of course, practically, the effect is about the same - the rules are applied - but that's not the point - it's semantically wrong to do it that way... However, if you try to give more than one element the same id, you will have problems - so don't do it. An element may have an id and a class, but that's usually not necessary. You can also give an element two classes if you need to - like this : class="class1 class2". It can be very useful. Needless to say, you can't give an element two id's. Another difference is to do with power. You can give an element an id and a class, but if any of the properties of the two conflict, the id style will win. Ids are more powerful than classes. One more useful thing about id's is that they can be used as a link reference. Many people still think that you need named anchors to make links within a page, but that's simply not true - in fact, the name attribute is deprecated in XHTML except for in forms. One example of using id's as link references is this page. There are no named anchors on this page - the questions at the top of the page link to the id's of the divs that the answers are in. I made a 10px-high div, but IE makes it 20px high... Yeah This problem sometimes comes up when you make a div just to contain the bottom border of a box,

Question - 26 : - When is auto different from 0 in margin properties?

Answer - 26 : - In vertical margins, auto is always equal to 0. In horizontal margins, auto is only equal to 0 if the width property is also auto. Here are three examples, assume that there is a <P> that is a child of<BODY>: Example 1: auto value on the width. BODY {width: 30em;} P {width: auto; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;} Since the width property is auto, the auto values of the two margins will be ignored. The result is a P that is 30em wide, with no margins. Example 2: two auto margins BODY {width: 30em;} P {width: 20em; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;} The P will be 20em wide and the remaining 10em will be divided between the two margins. Paragraphs will be indented 5em at both sides. Example 3: one auto margin BODY {width: 30em;} P {width: 20em; margin-left: 2em; margin-right: auto;} In this case, paragraphs are 20em wide and are indented 2em on the left side. Since the total width available is 30em, that means the right margin will be 8em. Note that the default value of width is auto, so setting one or both margins to auto is only useful if you set the width to something other than auto at the same time.

Question - 27 : - What is CLASS selector?

Answer - 27 : - Class selector is a "stand alone" class to which a specific style is declared. Using the CLASS attribute the declared style can then be associated with any HTML element. The class selectors are created by a period followed by the class's name. The name can contain characters a-z, A-Z, digits 0-9, period, hyphen, escaped characters, Unicode characters 161-255, as well as any Unicode character as a numeric code, however, they cannot start with a dash or a digit. (Note: in HTML the value of the CLASS attribute can contain more characters).It is a good practice to name classes according to their function than their appearance. .footnote {font: 70%} /* class as selector */ <ADDRESS CLASS=footnote/>This element is associated with the CLASS footnote</ADDRESS> <P CLASS=footnote>And so is this</P>

Question - 28 : - Styles not showing?

Answer - 28 : - There are different ways to apply CSS to a HTML document with a stylesheet, and these different ways can be combined: * inline (internal) (Deprecated for XHTML) * embedded (internal) * linked (external) and * @import (external) Note: An external stylesheet is a text file that contains only CSS Styles. HTML comments are not supposed to be in there and can lead to misinterpretation (> is the CSS "Child" selector!).

Question - 29 : - What is class?

Answer - 29 : - Class is a group of 1) instances of the same element to which an unique style can be attached or 2) instances of different elements to which the same style can be attached. 1) The rule P {color: red} will display red text in all paragraphs. By classifying the selector P different style can be attached to each class allowing the display of some paragraphs in one style and some other paragraphs in another style. 2) A class can also be specified without associating a specific element to it and then attached to any element which is to be styled in accordance with it's declaration. All elements to which a specific class is attached will have the same style. To classify an element add a period to the selector followed by an unique name. The name can contain characters a-z, A-Z, digits 0-9, period, hyphen, escaped characters, Unicode characters 161-255, as well as any Unicode character as a numeric code, however, they cannot start with a dash or a digit. (Note: in HTML the value of the CLASS attribute can contain more characters). (Note: text between /* and */ are my comments). CSS P.name1 {color: red} /* one class of P selector */ P.name2 {color: blue} /* another class of P selector */ .name3 {color: green} /* can be attached to any element */ HTML <P class=name1>This paragraph will be red</P> <P class=name2>This paragraph will be blue</P> <P class=name3>This paragraph will be green</P> <LI class=name3>This list item will be green</LI> It is a good practice to name classes according to their function than their appearance; e.g. P.fotnote and not P.green. In CSS1 only one class can be attached to a selector. CSS2 allows attaching more classes, e.g.: P.name1.name2.name3 {declaration} <P class="name1 name2 name2">This paragraph has three classes attached</P>

Question - 30 : - What is attribute selector?

Answer - 30 : - Attribute selector is a selector defined by 1) the attribute set to element(s), 2) the attribute and value(s), 3) the attribute and value parts: 1a) A[title] {text-decoration: underline} All A elements containing the TITLE attribute will be underlined 1b) A[class=name] {text-decoration: underline} The A elements classed as 'name' will be underlined 2) A[title="attribute element"] {text-decoration: underline} The A elements containing the TITLE attribute with a value that is an exact match of the specified value, which in this example is 'attribute element', will be underlined 3) A[title~="attribute"] {text-decoration: underline} The A elements containing the TITLE attribute with a value containing the specified word, which in this example is 'attribute', will be underlined

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