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Computer Interview Questions Answers

C Interview Questions Answers

Question - 71 : - How many levels deep can include files be nested?

Answer - 71 : - Even though there is no limit to the number of levels of nested include files you can have, your compiler might run out of stack space while trying to include an inordinately high number of files. This number varies according to your hardware configuration and possibly your compiler.

Question - 72 : - What is a pointer value and address?

Answer - 72 : - A pointer value is a data object that refers to a memory location. Each memory location is numbered in the memory. The number attached to a memory location is called the address of the location.

Question - 73 : - What is Difference Between C/C++

Answer - 73 : - C does not have a class/object concept. C++ provides data abstraction, data encapsulation, Inheritance and Polymorphism. C++ supports all C syntax. In C passing value to a function is "Call by Value" whereas in C++ its "Call by Reference" File extension is .c in C while .cpp in C++.(C++ compiler compiles the files with .c extension but C compiler can not!) In C structures can not have contain functions declarations. In C++ structures are like classes, so declaring functions is legal and allowed. C++ can have inline/virtual functions for the classes. c++ is C with Classes hence C++ while in c the closest u can get to an User defined data type is struct and union.

Question - 74 : - What is difference between template and macro??

Answer - 74 : - There is no way for the compiler to verify that the macro parameters are of compatible types. The macro is expanded without any special type checking. If macro parameter has a postincremented variable ( like c++ ), the increment is performed two times. Because macros are expanded by the preprocessor, compiler error messages will refer to the expanded macro, rather than the macro definition itself. Also, the macro will show up in expanded form during debugging. for example: Macro: #define min(i, j) (i < j ? i : j) template: template<class T> T min (T i, T j) { return i < j ? i : j; }

Question - 75 : - How can you determine the maximum value that a numeric variable can hold?

Answer - 75 : - For integral types, on a machine that uses two’s complement arithmetic (which is just about any machine you’re likely to use), a signed type can hold numbers from 2(number of bits 1) to +2(number of bits 1) 1. An unsigned type can hold values from 0 to +2(number of bits) 1. For instance, a 16-bit signed integer can hold numbers from 2^15 (32768) to +2^15 1 (32767).

Question - 76 : - Why can't I do something like this? extern char *getpass(); char str[10]; str = getpass("Enter password: ");

Answer - 76 : - Arrays are ``second-class citizens'' in C; one upshot of this prejudice is that you cannot assign to them . When you need to copy the contents of one array to another, you must do so explicitly. In the case of char arrays, the strcpy routine is usually appropriate: strcpy(str, getpass("Enter password: "));   (When you want to pass arrays around without copying them, you can use pointers and simple assignment)

Question - 77 : - What is the difference between a string and an array?

Answer - 77 : - An array is an array of anything. A string is a specific kind of an array with a well-known convention to determine its length. There are two kinds of programming languages: those in which a string is just an array of characters, and those in which it’s a special type. In C, a string is just an array of characters (type char), with one wrinkle: a C string always ends with a NUL character. The “value” of an array is the same as the address of (or a pointer to) the first element; so, frequently, a C string and a pointer to char are used to mean the same thing. An array can be any length. If it’s passed to a function, there’s no way the function can tell how long the array is supposed to be, unless some convention is used. The convention for strings is NUL termination; the last character is an ASCII NUL (‘’) character.

Question - 78 : - String Processing --- Write out a function that prints out all the permutations of a string. For example, abc would give you abc, acb, bac, bca, cab, cba.

Answer - 78 : - void PrintPermu (char *sBegin, char* sRest) { int iLoop; char cTmp; char cFLetter[1]; char *sNewBegin; char *sCur; int iLen; static int iCount; iLen = strlen(sRest); if (iLen == 2) { iCount++; printf("%d: %s%s\n",iCount,sBegin,sRest); iCount++; printf("%d: %s%c%c\n",iCount,sBegin,sRest[1],sRest[0]); return; } else if (iLen == 1) { iCount++; printf("%d: %s%s\n", iCount, sBegin, sRest); return; } else { // swap the first character of sRest with each of // the remaining chars recursively call debug print sCur = (char*)malloc(iLen); sNewBegin = (char*)malloc(iLen); for (iLoop = 0; iLoop < iLen; iLoop ++) { strcpy(sCur, sRest); strcpy(sNewBegin, sBegin); cTmp = sCur[iLoop]; sCur[iLoop] = sCur[0]; sCur[0] = cTmp; sprintf(cFLetter, "%c", sCur[0]); strcat(sNewBegin, cFLetter); debugprint(sNewBegin, sCur+1); } } } void main() { char s[255]; char sIn[255]; printf("\nEnter a string:"); scanf("%s%*c",sIn); memset(s,0,255); PrintPermu(s, sIn); }

Question - 79 : - What does it mean when a pointer is used in an if statement?

Answer - 79 : - Any time a pointer is used as a condition, it means “Is this a non-null pointer?” A pointer can be used in an if, while, for, or do/while statement, or in a conditional expression.

Question - 80 : - What is page thrashing?

Answer - 80 : - Some operating systems (such as UNIX or Windows in enhanced mode) use virtual memory. Virtual memory is a technique for making a machine behave as if it had more memory than it really has, by using disk space to simulate RAM (random-access memory). In the 80386 and higher Intel CPU chips, and in most other modern microprocessors (such as the Motorola 68030, Sparc, and Power PC), exists a piece of hardware called the Memory Management Unit, or MMU. The MMU treats memory as if it were composed of a series of pages. A page of memory is a block of contiguous bytes of a certain size, usually 4096 or 8192 bytes. The operating system sets up and maintains a table for each running program called the Process Memory Map, or PMM. This is a table of all the pages of memory that program can access and where each is really located. Every time your program accesses any portion of memory, the address (called a virtual address) is processed by the MMU. The MMU looks in the PMM to find out where the memory is really located (called the physical address). The physical address can be any location in memory or on disk that the operating system has assigned for it. If the location the program wants to access is on disk, the page containing it must be read from disk into memory, and the PMM must be updated to reflect this action (this is called a page fault). Because accessing the disk is so much slower than accessing RAM, the operating system tries to keep as much of the virtual memory as possible in RAM. If you’re running a large enough program (or several small programs at once), there might not be enough RAM to hold all the memory used by the programs, so some of it must be moved out of RAM and onto disk (this action is called paging out). The operating system tries to guess which areas of memory aren’t likely to be used for a while (usually based on how the memory has been used in the past). If it guesses wrong, or if your programs are accessing lots of memory in lots of places, many page faults will occur in order to read in the pages that were paged out. Because all of RAM is being used, for each page read in to be accessed, another page must be paged out. This can lead to more page faults, because now a different page of memory has been moved to disk. The problem of many page faults occurring in a short time, called page thrashing, can drastically cut the performance of a system. Programs that frequently acce

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Rajeev Katiyar
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